NameCapitan Marcos Alonso DE LA GARZA Y ARCON (OR DE LA GARZA TREVINO) El Mozo
Birthabt 1540, Lepe, Huelva, Reino De Castilla (Now Espana)
Deathabt 1610, Nuevo Leon, Mexico
Clotilde P. Garcia, CAPTAIN BLAS MARIA de la GARZA FALCON, COLONIZER OF SOUTH TEXAS, Jenkins Publishing Co., San Felipe Press, Austin, Texas, 1984.
Pedigree chart indicates that Captain Marcos Alonso GARZA y ARCON, Spanish nobleman, native of Lepe, Province of Huelva, Espana, arrived in Mexico City, Mexico about 1550. He married Dona Juana de TREVINO, born in Mexico City, daughter of Captain Diego de TREVINO and Dona Beatriz de QUINTANILLA, in Mexico City.
Carl Duaine, WITH ALL ARMS, 1987.
...written by Alonso de Leon...a direct quotation of his own account of the 1596 occupation of Monterrey for the third time. It is well now to list the fifteen settlers who so boldly followed Don Diego. There were:
Marcos Alonso --
p. 137: The Pioneering of Monterrey
....There were twelve family units recorded. I list of twelve heads of households, some of which did not consist of full families, follows:
5. Marcos Alonso.
Marcos ALONSO must have been a son of Juan ALONSO, who was an original grantee in Saltillo in 1577.
p. 140: There were two other families who made history in their section of Northern Mexico, the de La GARZAs and the Benavides family. As noted earlier, the immigrant Marcos Alonso de la GARZA y ARCON had two wives, both had children, and from those two families the de la GARZAs proliferated.
p. 141: Marcos Alonso appeared as a witness in Monterrey in 1610. He later declared that he came in with the Captain Diego RODRIGUEZ, “with his arms and horses, ready to do what was needed.” This would have made him among the original settlers. In 1692, Marcos Alonso de TREVINO made a declaration that he was born in the Realm in 1616. The last name would indicate that Marcos Alonso married into the TREVINO family. However, a document dated March, 1660, stated that Ignacio BOTELLO was married to Isabel MARTINEZ, daughter of Marcos Alonso and Catalina MARTINEZ. In 1634, Juan Buentello GUERRERO sold a ranch near Saltillo “that belonged to my ancestor, Marcos Alonso.” As noted earlier, Marcos Alonso was with MONTEMAYOR in the first settlement. He must have been a son of Juan Alonso, who was an original grantee in Saltillo in 1577.
p. 185: The name de la GARZA (“of the Herons”), as has been mentioned, is rare in Spain according to Julio de Atienza, in his ‘Dictionary of Names’. GARZA originated in Galicia, although the original emigrant to Mexico lists his birthplace as Lepe, Huelva, Spain.
This first emigrant was Marcos Alonso de la GARZA y ARCON. He was born about 1540 in Spain and died about 1610 in Nuevo Leon. His first marriage was to Catalina MARTINEZ GUAJARDO, and they had three children: Juana, who married Francisco BOTELLO de MORALES; Isabel; and Juan. His second marriage was to Juana de TREVINO in Mexico City. Their children were: Pedro, born about 1580 in Durango (Guadiana), who married Ines RODRIGUEZ; Blas, born in 1589 in Mapimi, married Beatriz GONZALEZ HIDALGO; Alonso de TREVINO married Anastacia GONZALEZ HIDALGO; Jusepe married Maria NAVARRO ROJO; Juana married Juan Olivares. There was another daughter and a last child, Francisco. These last two probably died young.
Marcos Alonso de la GARZA was a mining official in Guadiana (now Durango) in 1569. The family moved to Mapimi, Nueva Galicia, with herds, servants, etc. where Blas and Dona Juana were born.
Raul J. Guerra, Jr., Nadine M. Vasquez, Baldomero Vela, Jr., INDEX TO THE MARRIAGE INVESTIGATIONS OF THE DIOCESE OF GUADALAJARA, Vol. 1, 1989.
p. 326: Genealogy Chart #3: DIEGO TREVINO = BEATRIZ DE QUINTANILLA
IV. JUANA de TREVINO = Marcos Alonso GARZA y del ARCON
p. 327: Genealogy Chart #4 - Captain MARCOS ALONSO GARZA y del ARCON (n. Pueblo de Lepe, Huelva, Reino de Castilla) = JUANA de TREVINO QUINTANILLA (n. Ciudad de Mexico)
Tomas Mendirichaga Cueva, ORIGEN DE LOS APELLIDOS GARZA Y TREVINO, 1982, translated by Edna Garza Brown, 1989.
LINEAGE OF CAPTAIN MARCOS ALONSO GARZA AND JUANA DE TREVINO
The Nuevo Leon origin of the surname Garza goes back to Captain Marcos Alonso Garza, originally from the town of Lepe in the province of Huelva of the Spanish Kingdom. This ancient conqueror and Andalucian settler entered the New Kingdom of Leon at the beginning of the XVII century. His first wife, unknown until today, was Juana de Trevino, citizen of the City of Mexico, their legitimate children being Captains Pedro, Blas, and Francisco de la Garza and Diego, Captain Alonso and Ccommander Jose de Trevino, who adopted the maternal surname, according to the custom of the age, perhaps due to its illustrious origin and in that way perpetuating it. Marcos Alonso, the Younger, of whom wae will treat first, probably also could have been the son of Captain Marcos Alonso Garza.
We know very little about the founder of the surname Garza, who also originated two branches of the surname Trevino in Nuevo Leon. Surely he resided in the capital of the Viceroyship and, probably, there he contracted matrimony with Juana de Trevino. It is doubtless that at the end of the XVI century he was an inhabitant of Real de Mapimi and the town of Guadiana (today the city of Durango), where his sons Blas and Jose, respectivly, were born.
In a memorandum-book dated 1604, which Captain Francisco de urdinola, governor and captain general of Nueva Vizcaya, directed to the king of Spain, two bachelor sons of one Marcos Alonso are mentioned as inhabitants of Real y Minas de Cuencame, although their names were not given, these probably being two of the descendants of the patriarch. (1) Before coming to Nuevo Reino de Leon, Captain Marcos Alonso Garza lived in the town of Santiago del Saltillo, where, it is probably, he could have contracted a second matrimony with Catalina Martinez Guajardo. (See Explanetory Notes at the end).
On May 30, 1610, he solicited from Captain Diego Rodriguez, deputy to the governor of Nuevo Reino de Leon, various gifts of land and water in the vicinity of the town of Cerralvo and a command of “borrado” Indiana, which were granted. In the petition which he made, ne notes: “I have come with Captain Diego Rodriguez, deputy to the governor by the kind our Lord, with my arms and horses for whatever might be needed...”(2) It is the oldest document with his signature, which we know. (See Appendix I).
In 1612 and 1616, one Marcos Alonso appears with the charge of alderman in the municipal government of Monterrey; he could be the patriarch or a probable son of his, of whom we will treat presently.
In the list of inhabitants of Nuevo Reino de Leon, dated in 1626, which we will later cite several times, the name of Captain Marcos Alonso Garza does not appear, but some of his children are mentioned. It is probably that he already died at the end of 1634.(3)
Captain Marcos Alonso Garza and Juana de Trevino had approximately fifty-six grandchildren. (Appendix II).
We shall study separate4lyl each one of the children of this couple and their descendents, dedicating a chapter to each one.
(3) This is deduced from a writing dated December 5, 1634, in the town of Cerralvo, in which Juan Buentello Guerrero statess being the owner of a small animal ranch in Saltillo, “which is where his ancestor Marcos Alonso waas and lived...”, (Civil Registry, vol. 3, 1626-1637, file 11, foliio 13.
I Marcos Alonso, the Younger is mentioned in a document dated the 11th of July, 1610. (4) He and Diego de TREVINO, whom he calls “brother”, had solicited Governor Diego de MONTEMAYOR, probably at the beginning of the XVII century, for various gifts of land and water, which the founder of Monterrey distributed to them. (4 bis) How could one decuce that both were sons of Capitan Maracos ALONSO GARZA? Both apear as witnesses in the sale, which the said governor made of his Hacienda de San Francisco (today Apodaca, Nuevo Leon) to Capitan Jose de TREVINO on the 24th of September, 1610. (5)
Perhaps this Marcos Alonso could be the same one, who appears as alderman of the Municipal Government of Monterrey in 1612 and 1616. The one, who, along with the other members of the Monterrey town corporation, granted, on February 12, 1616, a power to Diego MUNOZ, “an inhabitant of this said city”, so that he would negotiate before the Viceroy Marquis of Guadalcazar and the Court of Mexico “the necessary things to the said royal service and utility” of Nuevo Reino de Leon. (6)
However, this personage could also be the patriarch, that is to say Captain Marcos ALONSO GARZA. In that case, Diego de TREVINO, whom he calls “brother”, could have been his brother-in-law, or be it brother of Juana TREVINO, his wife.
The prolific Nuevo Leon surnames Garza and Trevino - the latter one in two of its branches - had, as an origin, Captain Marcos Alonso Garza, “native of the town of Lepe of the Kingdoms of Castilla”, and Juana de Trevino, his wife, “native of Mexico City”. Nevertheless, both of their wills, which could give us interesting genealogical information, are unknown even today. the places of birth of Marcos Alonso and Juana are mentioned in the will of his son Commander Jose de Trevino dated November 12, 1646, in Hacienda de San Francisco (Apodaca, Nuevo Leon.)
In the same will of Commander Jose de Trevino, the name of his father appears thus: “Marcos Alonso Garza y del Arcon.” We suspect that the last surname is written erroneously and should be Alcon or Halcon, an archaic form of Falcon. This would explain why the sons of Calpain Blas de la Garza, son of Marcos Alonso and Juana, and Beatriz Gonzalez Hidalgo adopted the surnames of de la Garza Falcon. On the other hand, we believe that the first surname of the patriarch waas Alonso and not Garza, since in the documents we know, he is always called Marcos Alonso. Signatures of his or of his homonymic son, if one acatually existed, are found in:
I. the gift of land, which Captain Diego Rodriguez, llieutenant-governor, granted on May 20, 1610. (Civil Branch, vol. 26, 1703, file 4, foliio 53).
II. a record of the Monterrey Municipal Government dated January 1, 1612.
III. the power, which the municipal government of this city extended to Diego Munoz on February 12, 1616. (Public Records, vol. I, 1599-1630, no. 12, folios 18 and verso).
The cited documents can be found in the Monterrey Municipal Archives.
In respect to Captain Marcos Alonso Garza I express two hypotheses:
1. This person, at becoming the widower of Juana de Trevino, contracted a second marriage, probably in the town of Saltillo, with Cataline Martinez Guarjardo, from which union were born: Juana de la Garza, wife of Captain Francisco Botello de Morales, and Isabel Martinez, who adopted the first maternal surname and was the wife of Ignacio Botello. (Genealogical chart number I).
That Juana and Isabel were legitimate daughters of Marcos Alonso and Catalina is proven, with documents, in the wills of Captain Francisco Botello de Morales and Ignacio Botello, who thus record it.
Captain Francisco Botello de Morales states in his will: “Furthermore, I declare that I have been married and veiled*, according to the order of Our Holy Mother Church, to Juana de la Garza, deceased, legitimate daughter of Marcos Alonso de la Garza and of Catalina Martinez Guajardo, deceased, natives who were from the town of Saltillo...” (Public Records, vol. 5, 1691-1695, no. 92, folio 173).
For his part, Ignacio Botello notes in his laast will and testament: “Furthermore, I declare that I am married and veiled,* according to the order of Our Holy Mother Church, to Isabel Martinez, legitimate daughter of Marcos Alonzo (so it says) and of Catalina Martinez...” (Publilc Records, vol. 3, 1650-1680, no. 64, foliio 112).
2. See notes for Marcos Alonso de la Garza the Younger
p. 104: Captain Marcos Alonso GARZA, originally from Villa de Lepe, province of Huelva (Spain), patriarch of the surname GARZA and of two branches of the surname TREVINO in Nuevo Leon. He contracted matrimony with Juana de TREVINO, born in Mexico City, probably the legitimate daughter of Diego de TREVINO and Beatriz de QUINTANILLA. He entered the conquest of Nuevo Reino de Leon at the beginning of the XVII century and died there before 1635.
Rodolfo Gonzalez de la Garza, DESCENDIENTES DE POBLADORES DE MONTERREY, 1590-1700,
The 1591-1669 birth and death dates of Blas de la GARZA are included in the descendants chart of his parents, Marcos Alonso GARZA and Juana de TREVINO.
Richard G. Santos, SILENT HERITAGE: THE SEPHARDIM AND THE COLONIZATION OF THE SPANISH NORTH AMERICAN FRONTIER, 1492-1600, 2000.
The largest extended family unit to enter Nuevo Leon before 1624 was Marcos Alonso GARZA ARTZA del HARCON, whose surname was later altered to GARZA FALCON.
XXII. Marcos Alonso Garza Falcon was born at the Villa de Lepe, Province of Huelva, Spain. It is not presently known when he migrated to New Spain, but prior to 1569 he married Juana de TREVINO in Mexico City. In 1569 the couple was residing at the Villa de Guadiana (present City of Durango, Durango.) In 1590 the couple was living at Mazapil and in Saltillo by 1600. Marcos entered Nuevo Leon in 1603 bringing at least six children and a large extended family which included in-laws, distant relatives, servants and slaves.
David Raphael, THE CONQUISTADORES AND CRYPTO-JEWS OF MONTERREY, 2001.
The prominent Garza family of Monterrey traces its descent from the patriarch Marcos Alonso de la Garza, an immigrant to the New World from Lepe, Spain. Garza family members have long claimed that they are the direct descendants of Jews; however, such claims have been verbal assertions without any documentary proof. In this book, I present evidence garnered from Inquisition records to support the claim of ancestral Jewishness made by the Garzas. This was done through my finding a aCanary Islands document of two Garza family members from Lepe who were condemned to death by the Inquisition tribunal.
The sixteen founders of the villa of Santiago del Saltillo were:
Juan Alonso, Portuguese...
Chapter 11 - The Garzas of Monterrey: The Early Years
Little is known about the early years of the Garza patriarch Marcos Alonso de la Garza. It is possible that he was named after Alonso de la Garza, who perished in the flames of the auto-de-fe in the Canary Islands.
Upon arrival is New Spain, he resided in Mexico City, where he met his future wife, Juana de Trevino...
In the early years of the seventeenth century, Maracos Alonso made his way northward to the kingdom of Nuevo Leon where his sons had aslready established a foothold. A document records that he resided for some time in Saltillo, where he had a small animal ranch. In the course of time, he submitted a petition for a land grant:
“Grant of Captain Diego Rodriguez, Lieutenant Governor of the New Kingdom of Nuevo Leon, unto Marcos Alonso, May 30, 1610...
Although his precise date of death is not known, the available evidence indicates Maracos Alonso de la Garza died sometime before 1634.
The Children and Grandchildren of Marcos Alonso de la Garza and Juana Trevino
The progenitors, Marcos Alonso and Juana, of the Garza clan had seven children and approximately 56 grandchildren. Their children were (1) Captain Pedro de la Garza, (2) Captain Blas de la Garza, (3) Captain Francisco de la Garza, (4) Diego de Trevino, (5) Captain Alonso de Trevino, (6) Commander Jose de Trevino, and possibly (7) Marcos Alonso the Younger. As was the custom in Portugal and in Extremadura (western Spain) during the sixteenth century, two of the sons -- Diego and Jose -- adopted the maternal surname of Trevino.
In 1626, a census was done at the behest of the new governor, Martin de Zavala. Not counting children and Indians, ninety adult Spaniards were listed. In this census of 1626, not a single member of the Garza or the Fernandez de Castro families, and only one member of the Trevino family (Juan), is to be found residing permanently within the city of Monterrey. These families of Jewish descent clearly withdrew from the city in order to develop their own estates, anad possibly to practice their crypto-Jewish activities without fear of detection; nonetheless, they maintained a homeownership status in absentia within the city of Monterrey, which entitled them to municipal voting privileges.
According to the census, “At fifty paces from Pablo Sanchez, (there is) one house with one hall and two rooms that was bought by Blas de la Garza and Alonso de Tremino (Trevino) as their dwelling-house for their wives and children, but which they do not inhabit, on account of living in their estate in the site of San Francisco, three leagues from this villa.” Another example is that of Gonzalo Fernandez de Castro, married to the daughter of Captain Diego Rodriguez, who lived seven leagues from the villa in his ranch. On one side of the river, there is “a new house, with a hall and a covered dwelling-room where Captain Joseph de Trevino resides, when he comes to Mass.” The Canary Islands--born Bernabe de las Casas, now widowed, had his in the site of Salinas, seven leagues from the city, where he stayed with his sons, the bachelor Spaniard Domingo Gonzalez, and Francisco Baez de Benavides with his wife. (Garmendia Leal 1993, 62-64)
The residents outside of the city in the populated estates in the New Kingdom of Leon thus included Diego de Trevino, Joseph de Trevino, Captain Francisco Baez de Benavides, Gonzalo Fernandez de Castro, Francisco de la Garza, and Pedro de la Garza. Indeed, over one-third, and probably as many as one-half, of the landed estates in the vicinity of Monterrey belonged to families of indentifiable Jewish origin...
Keeping the Inquisition at Bay
...In Monterrey, as of 1626, the regional head of the Santa Hermandad was Joseph de Trevino, a New Christian of Jewish descent...
...It is not surprising that Trevino’s successor as the head of the Santa Hermaandad as of 1661 was none other than Bernabe Gonzalez Hidalgo, the brother-in-law of Blas de la Garza...
...in the selection of the members of the Monterrey city council of 1630, the following individuals, with their names asterisked to indicate Jewish descent, were elected as having voting rights: “The said sergeant major Miguel Sanchez, alderman with a first vote, gives the right of councilman and first vote to Gonzalo Fernandez de Castro*, and the second to Captain Blas de la Garza*, and head of the Holy Brotherhood to Captain Joseph de Trevino*; and steward of the Holy Sacrament and as alderman with first vote to the Captain Lucas Garcia (*), with a second vote as alderman to Diego de Montemayor (*?), the third vote to Diego de Trevino*, and the fourth to Bartolome Garcia, attorney general of this city and kingdom, and to Pedro de la Garza*.” (Cavazos Garza 1994)
It should be noted that Captain Lucas Garcia was the son of Baltazar Castano de Sosa, of highly probably Jewish descent. ...
“The incompetency of the Inquisition officials in the areas distant from Mexico further impeded the effectiveness of the Holy Office. This explains in part why the Jews of Nuevo Leon and its capital, Monterrey, lived free of molestation. This was a second partial cause of the undoing of their attachment to their faith. This freedom lasted for over 100 years and contributed to Jewish assimilation. Many of the leading families that are now Catholic or Protestant are descended from the crypto-Jews who came to Monterrey, Linares, and other towns beginning about 1640. These Jews aided in making Nuevo Leon the leading, most progressive of the twenty-nine states of modern Mexico. One of the most illustrious members of the Garza faily in Monterrey made a generous donation to the Jewish community center when it was erected in this century because his ancestors had been practicing Jews in Monterrey.”
The warrior capabilities of the Conversos in the Monterrey area had been developing for years. Blas de la Garza describes his recruitment and leadership of soldiers, including his own sons, into battle during an Alazapa Indian uprising. Joined by War-Captain Gonzalo Fernandez de Castro, also of Jewish descent, they protected the infant colony from being overrun by this militant regional tribe. The Converso settlers participated in numerous expeditions against the Indians, and in the protection of the northern frontier from French invasion.
It is evident then that the crypto-Jewish warriors of Monterrey had become invaluable and indispensable to the government of Nuevo Leon, and that without their participation the colonial enterprise in that region might falter.
...Indeed, Governor Zavala regarded this action by a Converso of Jewish descent as less of a threat to his fledgling New Kingdom of Leon than that of disarming a valiant soldier who was needed badly in the war against the Indians. As a result, Francisco Baez’s weapon was promptly returned to him.
It had taken approximately one hundred and fifty years, from the 1497 forced conversion of the Jews in Portugal, for their descendants to practice willingly the faith of their Christian persecutors.
The incompetency of the Inquisition officials in the areas distant from Mexico further impeded the effectiveness of the Holy Office. This explains in part why the Jews of Nuevo Leon and its capital, Monterrey, lived free of molestation. This was a second partial cause of the undoing of their attachment to their faith. This freedom lasted for over 100 years and contributed to Jewish assimilation. Many of the leading families that are now Catholic or Protestant are descended from the crypto-Jews who came to Monterrey, Linares, and othere towns beginning about 1640. These Jews aided in making Nuevo Leon the leading, most progressive of the twenty-nine states of modern Mexico. One of the most illustrious members of the Garza family in Monterrey made a generous donation to the Jewish community centaer when it was erected in this century because his ancestors had been practicing Jews in Monterrey.
Birth1556-1566, Ciudad De Mexico, Mexico
Deathabt 1612, Durango, Durango, Mexico
Marriageabt 1580, Durango, Durango, Mexico